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Tuesday, April 28, 2015

When Immunity Goes Awry: The Relationship of Foods, the Gut, and the Immune System

NDNR | April 1, 2015

To discuss the importance of how food allergies or autoimmunity are influenced by the immune system, one must have a basic understanding of the system itself. The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infection. The human body provides an ideal environment for many microbes, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The immune system prevents and limits their entry and growth in order to maintain optimal health.
Our immune systems are able to distinguish between healthy cells and unhealthy cells (infected or damaged cells) by recognizing danger signals called danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Pathogens such as viruses and bacteria release another type of danger signal, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs); these are also recognized by our immune system. When signals are first recognized, the immune system should respond to deal with the problem. A deficient immune response can result in problems like infection. On the other hand, an activated immune response in the absence of a real threat, or the persistence of an immune response despite the passing of a threat, can lead to problems such as allergic reactions and autoimmune disease.1

IMMUNE CELLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

Numerous cells are involved in the immune system.2 One of these categories of cells is dendritic cells (DC), which is a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). Antigens are molecules from host cells, allergens, and pathogens that have been made into “readable” fragments by APCs that can be recognized by B or T lymphocytes. Following an initial response to a specific antigen, adaptive immune cells acquire immunological memory. However, this process of T-cell activation by antigens depends on the presentation of the appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expressed on the APC. It is this MHC that enables immune cells to differentiate between host cells and foreign cells.
Now, to “B” more specific… The function of B cells is 2-fold: they present antigens to T cells, and they also produce antibodies that help neutralize infectious microbes. The coating of the surface of a pathogen by antibodies leads to neutralization, opsonization, and the activation of complement.
Neutralization means that the antibody-coated pathogen cannot bind to and infect host cells. In opsonization, an antibody-bound pathogen alerts neutrophils and macrophages to engulf and destroy the pathogen. Complement activation results in an inflammatory process aimed at directly destroying pathogens.
Categories of antibodies (or immunoglobulins, or Ig) include IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA and IgE. While these immunoglobulins have overlapping roles, they also have unique roles: IgM is used in complement activation; IgD helps activate basophils; IgG is involved in neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation; IgA is the primary neutralizing antibody in the gastrointestinal tract; and, lastly, IgE is involved in the activation of mast cells during immune responses to parasites and allergens.2
The gut, the immune system, allergy, and autoimmune disease are all tied together. The body is a biochemical masterpiece. The food one takes in is immediately broken down through a number of biochemical interventions. If a person has a food allergy or sensitivity, the immune system kicks in and labels, say, delicious zucchini bread, as a foreign antigen, and mounts an immune response.
Immune-mediated reactions to foods, or food allergies, are divided into IgE- and non-IgE reactions. An anaphylactic reaction to an ingested food is a life-threatening condition due to swelling and constriction of the airways. It is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction and occurs immediately after the ingestion of the culpable food. When an immediate food reaction occurs, sufferers experience symptoms often within minutes of ingesting the food. Symptoms of anaphylaxis can include tightening of the throat, wheezing, coughing, gastrointestinal symptoms, and tingling in the extremities. Common triggers include nuts, shellfish, fish, and peanuts.
Delayed food sensitivities are caused by IgG and immune complexes that activate complement. This is the most common form of immunologically-mediated food response. It can be difficult to identify the offending food, since 1) symptoms are usually delayed (may take up to 72 hours to appear); 2) we eat many foods that are processed; and 3) these foods usually have multiple ingredients. Unidentified food sensitivities can contribute to many chronic health conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, headaches, autism, ADD/ADHD, eczema, chronic ear infections, and many others.3

HOW THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS CONNECTED TO THE GUT & INFLAMMATION

So how do common foods like corn, egg, dairy, wheat, and soy produce such an IgG inflammatory response? Without exploring the world of genetically-modified foods and breaking down the components of our soil, the simple answer is our immune system. As stated above, the vast infrastructure of the immune system is made of an intricate network of cells and their signaling patterns. All immune cells originate from precursors in the bone marrow and go on to develop into mature cells with specific tasks. The skin is one of the first lines of defense against pathogens. Mucosal surfaces are major entry points for pathogens. As a result, mucosal tissues such as the respiratory tract and gut are heavily defended by the immune system. For example, Peyer’s patches in the small intestine are areas where immune cells sample luminal antigens and facilitate immune responses if needed.1
Simply stated, the gut could be considered the center of the body’s universe. First, foods and additives enter the gut. Following their entry, there is a formation of the immunomodulatory and inflammatory fragment of dietary proteins. Then there is a release of tight junction proteins that open the tight junctions in the intestine. As dietary peptides pass through these tight junctions, they are presented to the APCs. The APCs, in turn, release TNFα and interferon (inflammatory cytokines, ie, molecules that communicate between cells to trigger protective immune defenses against pathogens). From the APC, the antigen is also presented to T lymphocytes. From the T cell, there are 2 possible immune responses to an antigen: One is an induction of cell-mediated immunity. The other is an induction of a humoral immune response as the antigen is further presented to B cells. From the B cell, there is a production of antibodies against tight junction proteins, and/or production of IgG and IgM antibodies against dietary peptides. Immune complexes are formed, deposited into the tissues, complement is activated, and inflammation and symptoms occur. Back at the T cell, there is release of TNFα and interferon, and/or the antigen will be further presented to the killer T cell. Either process results in the presentation to the proteins of the lamina propria in the gut. Here, the cytokines, killer T cells, and antibodies induce an immune process targeting intestinal epithelial cells, which then causes symptoms to appear.4

STEPS FOR DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT

The first step in resolving food sensitivities and autoimmune reactions is detection of triggers. One must find the appropriate laboratory panel that can highlight the root cause. Is the concern resolved by an evaluation of the gut that may include imaging or further invasive procedures such as biopsy? Would a chemical or infection immune-reactivity screening be helpful? A nice starting point is a dietary screening. Choose the appropriate food sensitivity panel that best expresses the antigen/antibody complex, such as a delayed-hypersensitivity reaction IgG food panel. Such a test can confirm the expression of antibodies, as well as the degree of affinity between those antibodies and particular antigens. Occasionally, a lab screening is not the most appropriate choice for a particular patient.
Once dietary triggers are identified, remove them from the diet. Consider a structured elimination diet. Removing the “antigen” for 3 to 4 weeks allows inflammation to subside. After this, challenge each food for 3-4 days, to allow triggering of an immune response. If an inflammatory reaction occurs, than you can assume a food sensitivity is to blame. A nice follow-up is to initiate a slow and gentle cleanse, which can leave the body better able to tolerate a healthy, whole-foods diet. Do not forget hydration and exercise, as these are at the base of a healthy pyramid. Other factors to remove are environmental poisons, including solvents, benzenes, styrenes, and phthalates. Also consider limiting heavy metals and pharmaceutical drug metabolites.
Finally, repair the gut. Most doctors have their “go to” gut-repairing formula. This can only add to your treatment options. Often considered is the amino acid L-glutamine, which is excellent for repairing the gut. A nice probiotic not only helps eliminate an offender, but also works to heal the gut and regulate immune responses. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) repairs the gut, as well as assists in breaking down difficult-to-digest foods.5 Other suggestions include the powerful medicinal compound curcumin, vitamin D, and EPA/DHA. With the appropriate ratio of EPA to DHA, the inflammatory process can be decreased. Cruciferous vegetables contain indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Not only does I3C metabolize estrogens, it aids in the detoxification of metabolic wastes throughout the body. Examples include cellular debris, hormones, and chemical byproducts.

DOES IT MATTER?

Of course it matters. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) – the brilliant “Father of Modern Medicine” – eloquently stated, “Let food be your medicines and medicines your foods.” If the body is thrown into a severe immune response to a food, or is unable to turn off this response, that food will never be your medicine. Ignoring this can cause many health concerns, as food affects every aspect of your physiology. The immune system is complicated and always changing. This change can allow the body to produce more symptoms. As practitioners, it is important to evaluate these symptoms, to continually change your diagnosis strategy and treatment plan according to what is needed.
Hegnauer_headshotAmanda Hegnauer, ND, is a licensed naturopathic doctor in the state of New Hampshire. She earned her doctorate from SCNM in Tempe, AZ. In the past, Dr. Hegnauer served as the executive coordinator of the New Hampshire Association of Naturopathic Doctors, of which she is currently a member. She currently sits on the board at both the Concord and New London CoOp as a wellness educator. Dr Hegnauer holds a particular interest in chronic fatigue, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, and gastroenterology. She also enjoys a focus on women’s health, including treating the symptoms of menopause and utilizing bioidentical hormone replacement therapy. Diet, lifestyle, and a solid biochemical foundation are the driving forces of her practice at Whole Health Concord in Concord, NH, and Cougar Sound Spirits Healing Center in Sutton, NH. Her other interests include clinical nutrition, including vitamin and mineral supplementation, homeopathy, and botanical medicine.

REFERENCES:

  1. Immune System. Overview of the Immune System. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. NIAID Web site. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immuneSystem/Pages/overview.aspx. Accessed December 15, 2014.
  2. Immune System. Immune Cells. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. NIAID Web site. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immuneSystem/Pages/immuneCells.aspx. Accessed December 15, 2014.
  3. Gaby AR. The Role of Hidden Food Allergy/Intolerance in Chronic Disease. Altern Med Rev. 1998;3(2):90-100.
  4. Campbell AW. The Gut, Intestinal Permeability, and Autoimmunity. Alternative Therapies. 2015;21(1):6-7.
  5. Marz R. Peptic Ulcers. In: Medical Nutrition from Marz. Portland, OR: Omni-Press; 2002.



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Friday, March 27, 2015

Don't Snooze on Nutrition: See How Foods Affect Sleep

Huffington Post Healthy Living | Posted: 

We all know nutrition provides our bodies with fuel for the day, but what we eat also affects how we power down at night.
Research has found that certain nutrients in food can affect sleep, from how easy it is to fall asleep at a reasonable hour to the quality of rest we get throughout the night. See what you should munch on for better nights and what foods to skip.
Dietary Habits and Your Sleep
Have you ever caught yourself napping after a big meal or wishing you wouldn't have had that post-dinner coffee? What we consume and when can affect our sleep in a variety of ways.
One obvious avenue is by stimulating biological systems that keep us awake. Sugars, caffeine and other stimulants work on hormones and neurotransmitters to keep you wired. In the evening hours, they can delay your body's normal routine and keep you up hours later than usual.
Other foods like peppers, spices and even dairy can cause indigestion for some people. This can lead to discomfort when trying to fall asleep, and less restful sleep during the night.
It's common for people to eat their biggest meal for dinner, but large meals and snacks eaten in the evening, particularly those high in fat, can impair sleep quality, according to one Brazilian study. In contrast, another study found higher carbohydrate meals consumed in the evening may help improve sleep onset but are best consumed four hours before bedtime.
Though a big meal can make you feel drowsy, food takes energy and time to digest, and digestion can slightly elevate body temperature. Body temperature is important, as it appears that the body's natural drop in temperature during sleep plays an important role in deep sleep quality.
More recently, studies have found that too much or too little of specific nutrients and vitamins in the overall diet also relate to sleep quality.
Effects of Nutrition on Sleep Duration
University of Pennsylvania researchers conducted a large-scale study using data derived from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In the study, researchers sought to determine which dietary factors could be statistically correlated with self-reported sleep habits, finding several interesting connections.
Findings were grouped by sleep duration, with people sleeping under five hours classified as very short sleepers, five to six hours as short sleepers, seven to nine hours as normal sleepers, and longer than nine hours as long sleepers.
Nutritional factors that appeared to have the biggest impact on rest include: theobromine, vitamin C, water, lutein and zeaxanthin, dodecanoic acid, choline, lycopene, carbohydrates, selenium, and alcohol.
Very short sleepers showed less dietary variation, and they had the lowest total calorie intake, consumed less protein and carbohydrates, and were more likely to be on a low-sodium diet. Their diets were associated with lower intake of lycopene, thiamin, total folate, folic acid, phosphorus, iron, zinc, selenium and tap water.
Short sleepers had diets high in overall moisture (but less tap water) and lutein + zeaxanthin, but low in vitamin C and selenium.
Long sleepers showed less dietary variation and consumed less total calories and overall carbohydrates. They consumed less theobromine, dodecanoic acid, choline, selenium, lycopene and phosphorus, but more alcohol.
Normal sleepers consumed the widest variety of foods, drank more tap water, consumed the most theobromine, and consumed more dodecanoic acid.
Effects of Nutrition on Sleep Complaints
Other research based on the same data looked at dietary effects on reports of difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, non-restorative sleep and daytime drowsiness.
Difficulty falling asleep was associated with fewer total calories, lower levels of alpha carotene, selenium, dodecanoic acid and calcium, and higher levels of hexadecanoic acid.
Difficulty staying asleep was associated with less varied diets, special diets and higher sodium use. This was also associated with diets low in carbohydrates, butanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, vitamin D, and lycopene, and high in hexanoic acid and overall moisture.
Non-restorative sleep was associated with diets low in calcium, vitamin C and plain water, and high in fat/cholesterol, butanoic acid, and moisture.
Daytime sleepiness was associated with special diets, high calorie diets, and diets high or low in fat/cholesterol. Also associated were diets low in potassium and plain water and high in overall moisture and theobromine.
What Can You Eat for Better Sleep?
While both studies used self-report data and looked at possible correlations rather than definitive causation, this information could be helpful when considering your own diet. Certain nutrients consistently stood out as beneficial for sleep, so incorporating more into your diet could be a smart move. The dietary sources of the nutrients below comes from the USDA Nutrient Database.
  • Lycopene is an antioxidant primarily found in red fruits and vegetables. Top sources include guava, watermelon, cooked tomatoes and products with tomatoes, papaya, grapefruit, red peppers, red cabbage, asparagus and parsley.
  • Theobromine is an alkaloid similar to caffeine. Top sources include cocoa powder, dark chocolate, guarana, and yerba mate tea.
  • Folate, or vitamin B9, is essential for many bodily functions. Top sources include lentils, beans, asparagus, avocado, spinach, broccoli and other leafy green vegetables.
  • Phosphorus is a mineral important for energy metabolism, cell repair and more. Top sources include pumpkin seeds, cheese, fish, shellfish, brazil nuts, lean meat, low fat dairy, tofu and lentils.
  • Selenium is a mineral with antioxidant properties. Top sources include brazil nuts, fish, shrimp, turkey, chicken, beef, and whole grains.
  • Vitamin C is important for renewing and repairing tissues, iron absorption and other functions. It's abundant in many fruits and vegetables, with top sources being bell peppers, guava, leafy greens, kiwi, berries, citrus fruits, tomatoes and peas.
  • Vitamin D is necessary for absorbing other minerals, protecting bones, and it may even play a role in circadian rhythms. Direct sunlight is the best source of vitamin D, but it is also found in fatty fish, fortified dairy and grains, mushrooms, tofu and eggs.
  • Butanoic acid is thought to contribute to a healthy colon. It's found in butter, cheese, and milk (particularly from goats and sheep).
  • Dodecanoic acid is a saturated fat also known as auric acid, with possible good cholesterol benefits. Top sources include coconuts, coconut oil and palm kernel oil.
  • Choline is important for the nervous system and liver health. Top sources include shrimp, eggs, fish, turkey, chicken, soy, and dark green vegetables.
  • Alpha carotene is an antioxidant and vitamin A precursor. Top sources include pumpkin, carrots, orange peppers and chili powder, squash, tomatoes and sweet potatoes.
  • Calcium is a mineral crucial for healthy bones and tissues. Top sources include dark leafy greens, milk, cheese, fish, fortified soy, okra, almonds, and black eyed peas.
  • Potassium is an important mineral for cell function. Top sources include white beans, spinach, potatoes, apricots, squash, yogurt, salmon, avocados, mushrooms and bananas.
Other research supports links between tart cherry juice and kiwifruit, but a few commonly-touted sleep promoters like warm milk and turkey for tryptophan facelimited clinical support.
Things that may best consumed in moderation include hexadecanoic acid (found in palm oil, butter, cheese, milk, meat) and hexanoic acid (found in animal fat, butter, milk, cheese and coconut oil). Alcohol is also a sleep stealer. It can make you drowsy initially, but it impairs your sleep cycles later in the night.
Consistent habits of good sleepers include getting the right amount of calories, eating a balanced diet with enough carbohydrates and lean protein but keeping fats in moderation, drinking plenty of plain (preferably tap) water, and eating a wide variety of foods.
Ultimately, the greater variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, proteins and grains you eat, the better your chance of getting diverse minerals, vitamins and antioxidants that help promote overall health and good sleep.
Do you notice changes to your sleep depending on how you eat, or does the research match your experience? Share in the comments.


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Thursday, March 19, 2015

The 4 most confusing things about sugar



660_sugar_cubes.jpg


Nowadays, when people meet me and hear that I'm a dietitian, the first thing they want to know is: What's the deal with sugar? No doubt, sugar is the diet villain du jour. You've probably seen some scary headlines calling sugar toxic and pointing to it as the source of all our health woes. But the real story is far more complex.

Sugar in large quantities is, in fact, a big threat to your health. For years, experts have been saying that eating too much of any food can up your diabetes risk because overeating leads to obesity, which is the real culprit behind skyrocketing rates of the disease. But recent research suggests that the sweet stuff may have a more direct impact: For every additional 150 calories of added sugar downed per person per day, the prevalence of diabetes rose by 1 percent, even after controlling for obesity, physical activity and calories from other foods, according to a large study looking at international data. When it comes to heart health, excess sugar is also suspect. People who ate the most added sugar more than doubled their risk of death from heart disease, a JAMA Internal Medicine study found.

Adding to the problem, sugar is hiding in many surprising products, such as oatmeal and peanut butter, and confusing food labels make it hard to know how much of it you're getting. So what's a girl to do?

Before you swear off everything from ice cream to strawberries, read my ground rules to satisfying your sweet tooth in the safest way possible.

Truth #1: Some kinds are better than others

It's key to know the difference between the two main types of sugar.

Naturally occurring sugar is found in whole foods, such as fruit, vegetables and dairy products. These foods tend to be better for you because they deliver fiber (in the case of produce), as well as protein and calcium (in dairy) and other important vitamins and minerals.

Added sugars are anything sweet put into a food for flavor, from the sugar in store-bought ketchup to the honey you spoon into your tea. (Yes, "natural" sweeteners count.) These sugars are concentrated and mostly devoid of nutrients. Although honey, maple syrup and the like have some healthful antioxidants and minerals, they still pack hefty doses of sweetener per spoonful. This means you get a lot of pure sugar—and calories—in a small portion, making it easy to go overboard and cause big problems. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), increases in sugar intake over the past four decades parallel our expanding waistlines, and studies have connected added sugar, not the naturally occurring kind, to heart disease and diabetes.

Truth #2: You have to read labels carefully

A lot of packaged foods contain both naturally occurring and added sugars. But the Nutrition Facts label lumps both kinds together, giving you one combined total. Last year, the FDA proposed separating the two to make it clearer how much of each type you're getting, but until those changes take effect, the easiest way to tell if sugar has been added is to scan the actual ingredients list. If you see sugar grams but no sweeteners listed, then none were added. If you do see any type of sweetener—including brown sugar, cane juice, corn syrup, maltose or fructose—make sure it's not the first thing listed. By law, ingredients must be in descending order of weight, so the higher up the added sugar, the more there is per bite. Also check for multiple types of sugar, which is a sneaky way food companies make something supersweet without telegraphing it on the ingredients list.

But you can automatically slash your sugar load by ditching sweetened drinks, eating mostly whole foods instead of sugary snacks and buying more unsweetened versions of packaged foods.

Truth #3: The limits are low but doable

According to the AHA, women should have no more than 100 calories of added sugar per day (about 6 teaspoons). Yet the average woman gets 18 teaspoons a day! Most of our added sugar comes from sweetened drinks and packaged foods, and the Nutrition Facts label lists sugar in grams, not calories or teaspoons, so it's easy to lose track. Fortunately, there's a simple formula for counting up sugar from any source: Just remember that 1 teaspoon equals about 4 grams of added sugar. So if you add a teaspoon to your morning joe and later have a chocolate protein bar with 12 grams (3 teaspoons) of sugar, you have 2 teaspoons (8 grams) left for the day.

Truth #4: Natural doesn't mean free-for-all

Hardly any of us are inhaling too many servings of whole fruits and vegetables. But juices, smoothies and dried fruits are another story. Recently, a client was confused when I pointed out that her 15-ounce bottle of green juice contained more than 53 grams of sugar (and nearly 270 calories!). It's all fruits and veggies, she reasoned, so why care? One problem when you gulp your produce is that you're getting natural sugar without fiber (and it's fiber in fruit that slows down digestion and gives your body time to metabolize the sugar). As a result, you store the excess calories as fat. Fiber also prevents blood sugar spikes that can raise your risk of type 2 diabetes.

Dried fruit can be tricky, too; without water, the natural sugars become more concentrated. You can still enjoy it, but right-size your portion: One cup of fresh fruit equals 1/2 cup of 100 percent juice equals 1/4 cup of unsweetened dried fruit. Now you're in control of your sugar calories.

Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, is Health’s contributing nutrition editor, and privately counsels clients in New York, Los Angeles, and long distance. Cynthia is currently the sports nutrition consultant to the New York Rangers NHL team and the Tampa Bay Rays MLB team, and is board certified as a specialist in sports dietetics.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.




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Thursday, March 12, 2015

20 Reasons You Should Drink Lemon Water in the Morning

 Living Traditionally | Posted on January 31, 2014





Adding lemon to water not only quenches thirst better than any other beverage, but it also nourishes our body with vitamins, minerals and trace elements which we absolutely need. Lemon with water can be considered the best natural energy booster. When we wake up in the morning, our bodily tissues are dehydrated and are in need of water to push out toxins and rejuvenate the cells. In other words, this homemade “lemonade” helps eliminate internal toxins, regulating proper kidney and digestive tract functions by forcing them to work as smoothly as possible.



20 Unbelievable Reasons To Start Your Day With Water and Lemon

  1. Water with lemon provides the body with electrolytes which hydrate your body. As lemons contain good amount of electrolytes such as potassium, calcium and magnesium.
  2. Water with lemon is good for the joints, reducing pain in the joints and muscles.
  3. Warm water with lemon helps digestion as lemon contains citric acid. It interacts with other enzymes and acids which easily stimulate the secretion of gastric juice and digestion.
  4. The liver produces more enzymes from water with lemon than from any other food.
  5. Water with lemon cleanses the liver. Lemon juice stimulates the liver to release toxins.
  6. Water with Lemon helps fight infections of the respiratory tract, sore throats and inflammation of the tonsils. This is due to the anti-inflammatory properties of lemon.
  7. Warm water with lemon helps regulate natural bowel movement.
  8. Water with lemon is indispensable for the normal work of metabolism. Since lemon is a powerful antioxidant, it protects the body from free radicals and strengthens the immune system.
  9. Water with lemon aids in proper functioning of the nervous system (as lemon has a high content of potassium). Depression and anxiety are often the result of low levels of potassium in the blood. The nervous system needs a sufficient amount of potassium to ensure sustainable signals to the heart.
  10. Water with lemon cleanses blood, blood vessels and arteries.
  11. Water with lemon can help lower blood pressure. A daily intake of one lemon can reduce high blood pressure by 10%.
  12. Water with lemon creates an alkalizing effect in the body. Even if you drink it immediately before a meal, it can help your body maintain a higher level of pH. The higher the pH, the more your body is able to fight diseases.
  13. Water with lemon is good for the skin. Vitamin C in lemon, improves our skin by rejuvenating the body. Drinking water with lemon regularly (every morning) will improve the condition of your skin.
  14. Water with lemon helps to dilute uric acid, the built up of which leads to pain in the joints and gout.
  15. Water with lemon is beneficial for pregnant women. Since lemons are loaded with Vitamin C, it acts as an adaptogen helping the body cope with viruses such as colds. Furthermore, vitamin C helps the formation of bone tissue of the unborn baby. At the same time, due to the high content of potassium, a mixture of water with lemon helps forming cells of the brain and nervous system of the baby.
  16. Water with lemon relieves heartburn. For this, mix a teaspoon of lemon juice in half a glass of water.
  17. Water with lemon helps dissolve gallstones, kidney stones, pancreatic stones, and calcium deposits.
  18. Water with lemon helps with weight loss. Lemons contain pectin fiber, which helps suppress hunger cravings. Studies have proven people with a better alkaline diet have lost weight faster.
  19. Water with lemon helps with tooth pain and gingivitis.
  20. Water with lemon prevents cancer. This is due to the fact that lemons are a highly alkaline food. Multiple studies have found that cancer cannot thrive in an alkaline environment.

How and when to drink water with lemon:

For this purpose, use warm purified or spring water. Take half a Cup of warm water without sugar and squeeze in there at least half of lemon or lime. Better to use a special juicer (to get the most juice with minimal effort). You can also use lemon essential oil.

You need to drink water with lemon first thing in the morning on an empty stomach. Some recommend a drink of water one hour before meals for maximum results.

So, when life gives you a bunch of lemons, make water with lemons.

This article is for informational purposes only, and is educational in nature. Statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. This article is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Please discuss with your own, qualified health care provider before adding in supplements or making any changes in your diet. PAID ENDORSEMENT DISCLOSURE: In order for me to support my blogging activities, I may receive monetary compensation or other types of remuneration for my endorsement, recommendation, testimonial and/or link to any products or services from this blog.


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Thursday, March 5, 2015

Three cups of tea a day can cut your risk of diabetes... even if you add milk



  • Natural ingredients in black tea could lead to reductions in blood sugar
  • Glucose-lowering ability could help prevent and control type-2 diabetes
  • Antioxidants found in black tea block enzymes that increase blood sugar
  • Other research suggested adding milk does not reduce health benefits


By JENNY HOPE MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT FOR THE DAILY MAIL
PUBLISHED: 19:02 EST, 27 February 2015 | UPDATED: 09:43 EST, 3 March 2015


Drinking three cups of tea a day can cut the risk of diabetes, says new research.

Two studies show that black tea has a glucose-lowering effect that could help prevent and manage type 2 diabetes, which affects 2.3 million Britons.

Experts say the findings suggest around three cups a day might help the body control blood sugar levels more effectively.

In the studies US and Japanese scientists investigated extracts from black tea in the laboratory.

They discovered the action of natural ingredients in black tea could lead to reductions in blood sugar.

The US research led by Lisa Striegel from Framingham State University analysed black tea leaves after being immersed in hot water.


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Healthy cuppa: Two studies show that black tea has a glucose-lowering effect that could help prevent and manage type 2 diabetes, which affects 2.3 million Britons


They extracted a number of polyphenols – antioxidants – all of which were shown to block enzymes that push up blood sugar from the digestion of carbohydrates.

They had 'significant activity' against the enzymes, alpha amylase and alpha-glucosidase. 

This suggests that black tea extract may reduce levels of glucose normally associated with these digestive enzymes, says a report in Frontiers of Nutrition. 

In a second study from Japan, a freeze dried powder extract of black tea leaves was found to have a similar effect on the two enzymes.

The study from the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University School of Pharmacy was published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology.

Although black tea was analysed in the study, other research in humans suggests adding milk does not dilute the benefits.

Dr Catherine Hood from the industry backed Tea Advisory Panel (TAP) said 'Diabetes is a condition of disordered glucose metabolism.

'The main source of glucose in the body comes from the digestion and hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates.



http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2972799/Three-cups-tea-day-cut-risk-diabetes-add-milk.html#v-4085127718001
Diabetes: Experts say the findings suggest around three cups a day might help the body control blood sugar levels more effectively

'The digestive enzymes pancreatic alpha-amylase and the intestinal alpha glucosidases are responsible for digesting carbohydrates to form glucose.

'Inhibition of these enzymes and hence the inhibition of glucose formation could contribute to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.'

Previous reviews involving almost 300,000 people found those who drank three to four cups a day enjoyed a 25 per cent lower chance of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those drinking tea occasionally or not at all.

Australian researchers ruled out the effects of caffeine, saying other ingredients such as magnesium and antioxidants may be responsible.

Dr Tim Bond from TAP said the studies provided additional evidence that around three cups of tea a day might produce anti-diabetic benefits.

He said 'Tea is a very popular beverage in the UK and these latest findings together with many other published studies continue to suggest that Britain's' favourite beverage is good for our health including our heart and vascular system.'

Almost 80 per cent of Britons are tea drinkers and they get through an estimated 165 million cups every day.

The British tea industry is estimated to be worth more than £700 million a year.

Antioxidants known as flavonoids found in tea are thought to control inflammation, reduce excess blood clotting, promote blood vessel function and limit furring up of the arteries.




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Tuesday, February 24, 2015

5 Things to Know About the New Food Guidelines

THE WALL STREET JOURNAL |  BY TENNILLE TRACY |  21 FEB 2015 8:49AM

A panel of nutrition experts recruited by the Obama administration to help develop the next set of dietary guidelines released its long-awaited recommendations this week. The panel addressed everything from red meat to coffee, unveiling a 570-page report that will be used by the Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services to craft new diet guidelines later this year. The guidelines, which form the basis of the MyPlate icon (formerly the food pyramid), represent the government’s final word on what constitutes a healthy diet. They’ve been published since 1980. They influence billions of dollars of government funding for nutrition programs, including school lunch standards and the Defense Department’s menu guidelines.


1Americans are eating poorly.


MARK LENNIHAN/ASSOCIATED PRESS
About two-thirds of all adults, or 155 million people, are overweight or obese. Roughly half have at least one preventable disease, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. Poor eating habits and physical inactivity are playing a major role. The situation is forcing the U.S. health care system to focus on treatment rather than prevention, the committee said. So what to eat? The panel suggests more fruit, vegetables, whole grains, low or non-fat dairy, seafood, legumes and nuts. What to limit? Red and processed meat, sugar-sweetened food and drinks, and refined grains.


2Consider the environment.


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The advisory committee took a controversial step by asserting the government should consider the environment when determining what Americans should eat. Generally speaking, this means promoting a diet that’s limited in meat but contains lots of fruit and vegetables. It also means eating seafood whose stocks aren’t threatened. According to the panel, the global production of food accounts for 80% of deforestation and 70% of fresh water use. The government has to focus on sustainable diets if it wants to ensure an adequate food supply will be available for future generations, it said. The meat industry says the panel has strayed too far from its mission. The beef industry, in particular, is accused of being tough on the environment, in part because it generates greenhouse gas emissions.



3Ditch the cholesterol limits.

CHARLIE NEIBERGALL/ASSOCIATED PRESS
Current dietary guidelines suggest Americans limit their cholesterol to 300 milligrams a day. That’s less than what’s found in a couple of eggs. This time around, the advisory panel said it’s ditching that recommendation because it can’t find evidence of an “appreciable relationship” between dietary cholesterol and cholesterol in the blood. The American Heart Association has also said that limiting dietary cholesterol will not lower the artery-clogging LDL (bad) cholesterol.



4Coffee and alcohol? Those can be okay.


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The panel said “moderate” amounts of coffee – three to five cups a day – has been found to reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For some people, even more coffee could be better. One study found the risk of Type 2 diabetes was 37% lower for people drinking 10 cups a day. But it warned against consuming too many calories from the cream and sugar that are often added to coffee. As for alcohol, the panel said a moderate amount could also be part of a healthy diet. But it also said no one should start drinking alcohol just because of potential health benefits. And booze is still off-limits for pregnant women.


5Beef. It’s not necessarily what’s for dinner.


AP PHOTO/WICHITA FALLS TIMES RECORD NEWS,
TORIN HALSEY
Americans should eat less red and processed meat, the panel said. Diets that high in those types of meat, along with french fries and sweets, are associated with a greater risk of colon and rectal cancer, it said. Red and processed meat is also associated with age-related cognitive impairment. In other parts of the report, the panel excluded lean meat from a list of foods that make up a healthy diet. It added in a footnote that said lean meat could be okay but researchers haven’t yet come up with a standard definition for what qualifies as lean meat. The meat industry pushed back against what it perceives as an anti-meat agenda. “Lean beef is one of the most nutrient rich foods, providing high levels of essential nutrients such as zinc, iron and protein, as opposed to empty calories,” said the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association.



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In Health,
The Naturally Botanicals Team
www.naturallybotanicals.com